Open Sky Agreement
The Brattle Group recently completed a large study that found that air traffic would increase and fares would decrease if existing restrictions were lifted. At the request of the European Commission, we analysed the economic impact of creating a single and open air transport market for Europe and the United States. We have come to the conclusion that an open aviation zone of the EU and the United States would enter into force: the Open Skies Treaty came into force in January 2002 and covers areas from Vancouver to Vladivostock. The treaty provides for a system of unarmed air observation flights throughout the territory of its 34 signatories. It aims to strengthen mutual understanding and trust by giving all participants, regardless of size, the opportunity to obtain information about military or other activities that affect them. Open skies is the most important international effort to date to promote the openness and transparency of the armed forces and their activities. The concept of “mutual air surveillance” was proposed to Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Bulganin at the 1955 Geneva Conference by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower; The Soviets, however, immediately rejected the concept and put several years to sleep. The treaty was finally signed in 1989 as the initiative of U.S. President (and former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency) George H.
W. Bush. The agreement negotiated by NATO members and the Warsaw Pact was signed on 24 March 1992 in Helsinki, Finland.  The United States officially withdrew on November 22, 2020.  Alternatively, the Biden administration could consider re-entering the treaty on the basis of an executive agreement that may have been approved by simple majorities in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Such a mechanism would require the agreement of the other 33 contracting parties. I hope the Russians would not choose to be cheerleaders. The initial agreement was signed on April 30, 2007 in Washington, D.C. The agreement entered into force on March 30, 2008. The second phase was signed in June 2010 and has been applied on an interim basis until all signatories are ratified.  Since 2002, 40 missions have been organized over the UK. There were 24 quota missions carried out by: Russia – 20; Ukraine – three; and Sweden – one.
There were 16 training flights from: Benelux (jointly with Estonia); Estonia (in conjunction with the Benelux); Georgia – three (a commune with Sweden); Sweden – three (a commune with Georgia); United States – three; Latvia; Lithuania; Romania; Slovenia; Yugoslavia.  Also since 2002, the United Kingdom has carried out a total of 51 open-air missions – 38 quota missions in the following countries: Ukraine (five); Georgia (seven) and Russia (26); 13 missions were training missions in the following nations: Bulgaria; Yugoslavia; Estonia; Slovenia (three); Sweden (three); United States; Latvia, Lithuania and Benelux.